"Cognitive Neuroanatomy", by Dr. Gülüstü Salur
On June 19, 2018 at 14:00, in Engineering Building Room A-412

Cognitive neuroanatomy; Pervasive health research in movement disorders and dementia; The present and future of neuropsychology; A historical overview of the diagnosis and treatment processes in Alzheimer and other dementias. Where are we today?; How can behavioral neurology benefit from clinical practice and interdisciplinary interaction?

"Self-Localisation by Using Artificial Neural Networks for Humanoid Robot NAO", by Yusuf Can Semerci, MSc, PhD candidate, Yeditepe University.
On April 30, 2018 at 16:15, in Engineering Building Room A-412

NAO is a humanoid robot that is widely used in robot soccer games. Position estimation is an important process in such robotics applications. The current solutions proposed in the literature usually utilize proximity markers that provide the necessary information to determine the position of the robot. However, self-localization without using an external marker is a challenging problem. In this study, a novel approach that is based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) learning is proposed for the self-localization problem of robot NAO on a soccer field. The method uses images captured by the vision sensors of the robot and a supervised learning process is carried out in order to obtain a self-localization system. Some image processing methods are also utilized in order to extract the features that are used in the learning process. Various tests are carried out and it has been observed that the NAO robot can estimate its position on the soccer field quite accurately.

"A Happy Physicist: Hawking"*, by Prof. Dr. Bayram Tekin, Middle East Technical University.
On April 24, 2018 at 15:00, in Law Building Room Z10A

There will be a talk, "A Happy Physicist: Hawking", on Tuesday, April 24th at Yeditepe University, co-hosted by the Cognitive Science Master's Program and Physics Department.

*The talk will be in Turkish.

"Frequency Effects in the Processing of Morphologically Complex Turkish Words", by Orhan Bilgin, MA, Boğaziçi University.
On April 16, 2018 at 17:00, in Engineering Building Room A-412

In this talk, the researcher is going to present the results of an empirical study that examines how morphologically simple and complex words in Turkish are represented in the brains of native speakers. The study was performed as part of the master's thesis I submitted to the Cognitive Science Program at Boğaziçi University in 2016. It contains two experiments that use various “frequency of occurrence” metrics as independent variables. The secondary findings of the study are that (a) frequency is an extremely complex concept, especially in the case of an agglutinating language like Turkish; (b) different frequency measures are highly correlated; (c) frequency distributions are uneven at several levels; (d) the overwhelming majority of grammatically possible forms are never used even in a large corpus; (e) in an agglutinating language like Turkish, morphology has a deep impact even at sub-lexical levels such as the distribution of letter-ngrams; (f) conducting psycholinguistics experiments online rather than in a laboratory environment is a feasible option; (g) letter shape does not have an effect on word recognition accuracy; (h) morphologically complex Turkish words are processed two times more slowly than simple words, suggesting that suffix sequences add a significant workload to the recognition process. The three main findings of the experiments, on the other hand, are that (a) more frequent simple words are processed faster than less frequent simple words, thus replicating a well-established finding in a typologically different language; (b) complex words are probably processed from left to right, and, most importantly, (c) the human brain can use suffix sequences to recognize complex words, thus suggesting that there exist mental representations for frequently occurring suffix sequences, probably in addition to mental representations for individual suffixes.

"Shape Grammars for Musical Improvisation through the Isochrony of Turkish Language", by Murat Ali Cengiz, HKU University of the Arts Utrecht.
On April 9, 2018 at 16:15, in Engineering Building Room A-412

Improvised music, in comparison to other genres, needs defined rules and parameters to be meaningful. Thus, a musical syntax has to be constructed and agreed upon. As musicians we have to derive from various sources for inspiration and information. The relation of isochrony and musical rhythm has been long debated as one way of how language shapes music. In this study, the rhythm of Turkish language is being analyzed for its use of creating a musical syntax.

To be able to shape the musical syntax, we’re going to explore the use of shape grammars in music, an architectural concept of Prof. George Stiny (MIT, Computer Aided Architectural Design), while using the Isochrony (the spoken rhythm) of the Turkish language as source material.

Musical syntax through works of Ray Jackendoff (Tufts) (Musical Parsing and Musical Affect) and Fred Lehrdahl (A Generative Theory of Tonal Music), shape grammars in computer aided architectural design, fractal relations and generative music are going to be discussed.

"Computation and Artificial Neural Networks", by Prof. Dr. Emin Erkan Korkmaz, Yeditepe University.
On April 2, 2018 at 16:00, in Engineering Building Room A-412

Artificial Neural Networks provide an interesting computational model where the computation is carried out by simple, but highly interconnected processing units. In this seminar, the basic concepts related to computation will be introduced and then Artificial Neural Networks will be discussed as a computational tool. The learning process carried out by Artificial Neural Networks, the limitations of the classical Feed Forward Network Model and the achievements obtained with the newly introduced Deep Networks will be emphasized.

"Can convolutional neural network models extract prognostic features of mild cognitive impairment: A case study based on structural magnetic resonance imaging", by Füsun Er, PhD, Yeditepe University.
On March 23, 2018 at 16:15, in Law Building Room B-311

Abstract: Nowadays, it is of great interest to identify neuroimaging biomarkers for the early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is considered that approximately half of patients with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) will eventually develop Alzheimer's disease, and the other half remain stable. In this context, a novel pooling strategy for convolutional neural network (CNN) models based on voxel-based morphometric analysis is introduced to predict the prognosis of patients with MCI. The results of the proposed model using baseline structural magnetic resonance (MR) images show that the use of a convolutional neural network using significant topographic regions of the brain is successful in predicting the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease for patients with MCI.

"Integration Processes at Multiple Levels of the Visual Cortical Hierarchy Revealed by Emergent Intermodulation Frequencies", by Nihan Alp, PhD, KU Leuven.
On March 5, 2018 at 16:15, in Engineering Building Room A-412

The visual system integrates visual inputs in a context-sensitive fashion and constructs a coherently organized whole. Although this is one of the most prominent aspects of human vision, the underlying neural mechanisms are still not fully understood. How integrated representations arise at the neural level remains elusive. To provide additional insight on this issue, we investigated the neural correlates of different types of Gestalts in which the whole requires the integration of visual information about the parts. Specifically, we applied high-density electroencephalography (EEG) by collecting steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs; Regan, 1966) in combination with the technique of “frequency tagging” (Regan & Heron, 1969) to different Gestalts. SSVEPs are the periodic neural responses to a periodic visual stimulation and the “frequency tagging” technique allows us to detect the neural activities corresponding to separate parts of the input images modulated at different frequencies (i.e., physically given fundamental frequencies). Most importantly, nonlinear intermodulation (IM) frequencies (e.g., summation of two input frequencies or differences between them and their harmonics), which emerge as a result of the interactions at the neural level, may appear in response to global configurations in Gestalt formation. In this talk, I will present three studies in which we identified specific IM components as objective neural markers for different types of Gestalt formation.

"An Investigation of The Context Account of Retrieval-Induced Forgetting: Culture as Context", by Demet Ay, MA, Yeditepe University & Koç University.
On February 26, 2018 at 16:00, in Law Building Room B-433

A recent article by Jonker et al. (2013) proposed that context shift can be an explanation for the retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) effect. Proponents of context account assert that there should be two contexts, as study and retrieval practice contexts (first assumption), in which retrieval practice context should be reinstated for practiced categories at test phase (second assumption) in order for RIF effect to occur. Next step for testing the context account should be testing the first assumption in the context account, that is, by preventing the context shift between study and retrieval practice phases. If context account is sufficient to explain RIF effect, the RIF effect should disappear or at least be lowered in this condition compared to the other condition. To test this hypothesis, two experimental conditions, one involving a context shift from study to retrieval practice phase, another one involving the same contexts across these phases and control condition, standard RIF paradigm, were administered using a between-participants design. It was hypothesized to observe RIF effect in the context shift and control conditions. The RIF effect was hypothesized to be reduced in the no-context-shift condition compared to the other conditions if the results support the context account. Results showed that the magnitude of the RIF effect among context shift, no-context-shift, and control conditions did not differ significantly from each other, revealing the standard RIF effects. Therefore, the current study failed to find evidence for the context account of the RIF effect. However, results of the present study can be explained by the retrieval specificity assumption of the inhibition account. Meanwhile, there are other studies testing the assumptions of context account which did not find consistent findings with Jonker et al. (2013) context account.

"Fundamentals of Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy: A General View and Applications", by Aykut Eken, PhD, Düzce University.
On 23 February, 2018 at 16:15, in Engineering Building Room A-412

Functional Near Infared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive optical brain imaging technique that has been a recently popular in neuroimaging literature. From 1993 to 2014, several publications in different research areas have been published in PubMed by using fNIRS (Boas et al., 2014). Like Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), fNIRS measures the cerebral hemodynamics While fMRI is using inhomogeneity of magnetic field caused by Deoxy-hemoglobin (HB) increase or decrease (Ogawa et al., 1990), fNIRS uses the light emission and scattering features of chromophores, Oxy-Hemoglobin (HBO2) and HB. Unlike fMRI, fNIRS measures concentration changes of Oxyhaemoglobin (Δ𝑐HbO2) and Deoxyhemoglobin (Δ𝑐HHb). Hemodynamic response is represented in fNIRS as increase in Δ𝑐HbO2 and decrease in Δ𝑐HHb.

fNIRS is preferred in neuroscience research to due to having several advantages such as being mobile and inexpensive. In addition to this, it is well-suited for several patient populations compared with other neuroimaging modalities such as its unique ability to collect real time noninvasive data in natural settings without giving discomfort to the participant. fNIRS has been used to investigate a broad range of questions related to i) some psychiatric disorders, ii) understanding the underlying physiological mechanisms of perception and cognition, motor control, ii) some themes in neurology and anesthesia research. Among other neuroimaging modalities, fNIRS is strongly preferred in studies focused on cortical hemodynamic responses, enables hemodynamic response acquisition in task-free environmens with high-spatial resolution thanks to recently developed high density and wearable systems.

The main objective of this presentation is to familiarize the participants with physical and physiological principles underlying fNIRS methodology, hemodynamic response, various commercial fNIRS systems, experimental design, probe positioning, signal analysis and processing, statistical analysis, multimodal studies (with EEG and fMRI) and advanced applications.

"Linguistics and its Interfaces as a Cognitive Science", by Assist. Prof. Dr. Serkan Şener, Department of Turkish Language and Literature, Yeditepe University.
On December 1, 2017 at 16:00, at Acıbadem Yeditepe University Hospital

"Distinguishing and predicting cognitive disorders. A machine learning approach.", by Assist. Prof. Dr. Dionysis Goularas, Department of Computer Engineering, Yeditepe University.
On October 27, 2017 at 13:00, in Engineering Building Room A-412

In this seminar we examine how the prediction or the prognosis prediction of cognitive disorders can be achieved using machine learning algorithms. In a first case we examine the separability of cognitive disorders using cognitive tests combined with machine learning algorithms. Then, in a second case, based on MRI data we attempt to predict the diagnosis of MCI to AD using cross sectional and longitudinal data together with deep learning techniques.

"Computational Models in Artificial Intelligence Research", by Prof. Dr. Emin Erkan Korkmaz, Department of Computer Engineering, Yeditepe University.
On October 27, 2017 at 13:30, in Engineering Building Room A-412

In this seminar, various computational models utilized in artificial intelligence research will be introduced with an emphasis on artificial neural networks. The limitations of the classical neural network model and the achievements obtained with the newly introduced deep networks will be discussed.

"Neuropsychology of communication disorders: Evidence from acquired language impairments in a Turkish-English bilingual", by Dr. İlhan Raman, Middlesex University.
On April 22, 2015 at 14:00, in Law Building Room 211

"Processing Sentences in Turkish: Effects of Phrase Lengths and Syntactic Parsing Strategies in the Perceived Informativeness of Prosodic Cues", by Nazik Dinçtopal Deniz, Bogazici University.
On April 10, 2015 at 13:00, in Law Building Room 211

It has been reported that prosody (stress, rhythm and intonation) of an utterance can inform the sentence processing mechanism toward the correct syntactic structure of the utterance, preventing potential processing difficulties associated with temporarily ambiguous sentences. Other research showed that informativeness of prosodic cues is influenced by the lengths of phrases that a prosodic boundary flanks. According to the Rational Speaker Hypothesis (RSH) of Clifton and colleagues (2006), prosodic breaks flanking short constituents are treated as more informative about syntax than breaks flanking longer constituents since the former would not be motivated by optimal length considerations. This study investigated how rational speaker effects interact with syntactic parsing strategies not only when they align with each other but also when they conflict. Results support a role for both RSH and syntactic parsing strategies.

"Do you know what you know? Neural basis of metacognition" by Metehan Irak, Bahcesehir University.
On March 27, 2015 at 12:00, in Fine Arts Building Room 7E02

Metacognition is a multi-dimensional concept, which refers to an individual’s ability to monitor and control his or her own cognitive system. Among the variety of higher-order cognitive capabilities, monitoring information stored in memory is one of them that have crucial importance in everyday life. Metacognition includes both prospective and retrospective monitoring activated at different stages during acquisition, retention, and retrieval. Feeling of knowing (FOK) is one of the metacognitive processes that is characterized by the prospective judgments that are made about the future likelihood of recognition of previously non-recalled information. Cognitive control and monitoring have long been linked to frontal lobes in the literature however neurobiological basis of FOK judgment is still unclear. In this presentation results of several memory experiments which were conducted on a big sample to investigate neural basis of FOK using event-related potential (ERP) methodology will be discussed. Additionally, ERP correlates of different FOK judgments and effects of high vs low FOK judgments on ERPs will be highlighted.

"What does acquisition of irregularities in Turkish morphology reveal about rules in the brain?" by Assoc. Prof.Dr. Mine Nakıpoğlu, Boğaziçi University.
On March 20, 2015 at 13:00, in Law Building Room Z07

"Turkish Communicative Development Inventory (TCDI) is valid for assessing lexical, grammatical and communicative development of 8-36 month-old Turkish-speaking children", by Burçak Arctic, University of Southern Denmark.
On December 26, 2014 at 13:00, in Fine Arts Building Room 7E04

Given the importance of early language development for later language and cognitive competence (e.g. Dickinson & Neuman, 2006; Marchman & Fernald, 2008; Snow, Burns & Griffin, 1998; Snow, 1999; Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998, 2001), understanding the course and pace of language development is of interest to researchers in addition to the parents and practitioners. The current study presents a recently built maternal report checklist, the “Turkish Communicative Development Inventory (TCDI)” which is developed to assess language competence of Turkish-speaking children for the very beginnings of language learning. TCDI is the adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (MB-CDI) (Fenson, Dale, Reznick, Thal, Bates, Hartung, Pethick, & Reilly, 1993) and consists of two forms: TCDI-I aims to assess the communicative behavior and lexicon of 8-16 month-olds, TCDI-II aims to assess the lexical and grammatical competence of 16-36 month-olds. In this talk, the findings from the standardization process and the concurrent validity study of TCDI inventories will be presented. Results will be discussed in relation to the specific socio-economic factors and home environment in order to identify the sources of variability in early linguistic skills of Turkish-speaking children.

"Tackling Winograd Schemas by Formalizing Relevance Theory in Knowledge Graphs", by Assist. Prof. Dr. Peter Schüller, Marmara University.
On December 12, 2014 at 13:00, in Fine Arts Building Room 7E04

We study disambiguating of pronoun references in Winograd Schemas, which are part of the Winograd Schema Challenge, a proposed replacement for the Turing test. This talk will give an introduction to Winograd Schemas and some ideas for resolving them. In particular we consider sentences where the pronoun can be resolved to both antecedents without semantic violations in world knowledge, that means for both readings of the sentence there is a possible consistent world. Nevertheless humans will strongly prefer one answer, which can be explained by pragmatic effects described in Relevance Theory. We state formal optimization criteria based on principles of Relevance Theory in a simplification of Roger Schank’s graph framework for natural language understanding. We perform experiments using Answer Set Programming and report the usefulness of our criteria for disambiguation and their sensitivity to parameter variations.

Finally we give an outlook into how knowledge graphs may be created automatically using existing resources on the Internet.

"Belief about Myself", by Prof. Dr. Stephen Voss, Boğaziçi University.
On October 22, 2014 at 14:00, in Fine Arts Building Room 105

What is it to have a belief about oneself, as oneself—an “I belief”? François Recanati suggests a cognitive account: perceptual evidence is uniquely appropriate to I belief. But the connection seems only contingent, and John Perry has observed that these beliefs also have motivational power: I am moved to act by the belief that I am making a mess. Hume’s theory of the moral passions offers a noncognitive model, but I beliefs really are beliefs. Instead, on an Aristotelian theory of motivational reason to act, a belief is an I belief if and only if for some non-I desire the two would provide a reason to act. That theory allows the derivation of an account that explains both the noncognitive and cognitive features of I belief: In I belief one conceives oneself, as oneself, as agent. The link with the minor premises of practical syllogisms provides the clue; the link with their conclusions answers the question.

“Linearization in Noun Phrases in Turkish Sign Language”, by Prof. Dr. A. Sumru Özsoy, Boğaziçi University.
On May 16, 2014 at 16.00, in Law Building Room B-332

In this talk I will focus on the order of constituents within a noun phrase in Turkish Sign Language (TID). In TID, as in many other sign languages (e.g., ASL, NGT, TSL), the order of constituents in a noun phrase (NP) is relatively free. It will be argued that the order of constituents in a NP in TID complies with the Dem>Num.Adj>N of Greenberg’s (1963) U20i, with the caveat that TID does not seem to differentiate between Num and Adj with respect to their relative order (i.e. hierarchical relation) within the NP. Consequently, we will argue that in TID (i) the nominal constructions are hierarchically ordered, (ii) nominal projections are DPs, (iii) NPs are underlyingly head final and (iv) the head-initial NP constructions are the output leftward movement of the N to the specifier position of the first adjunct phrase in an underlyingly head-final structure. We will ultimately argue that the NP structures in TID present evidence in favor of the derivational approach to constituent order variation as proposed by Cinque (2005).

"Individual and Cultural Differences in Color Vision" by Prof. Dr. Gökhan Malkoç, İstanbul Commerce University.
On May 9, 2014, in Law Building Room B-332

Color appearance models (De Valois & De Valois, 1993) propose certain colors organization mediating color perception. These models are consistent with universalist explanation of basic color terms. Opposite point of view indicates that basic color terms are defined based on cultural factors. In this study, I examined whether there is a cultural influence on primary and binary hues of focal color. With the same procedure, data were collected from 73 American and 68 Turkish college students. They have normal vision and their color vision were examined with Neitz Color Vision Test. Stimuli were shown on a computer monitor and viewed binocularly in an otherwise dark room from 250cm. The task was to set a ”best example” of a given color. The hue angle corresponding to each of the eight colors [four primary hues (red, green, and blue, yellow) and the four binary hues (yellow-green, blue-green, purple, and orange] were estimated by varying the hue of successive stimuli in two randomly-interleaved staircases. When a test stimulus was presented, subjects made a forced-choice judgment about its perceived color. Stimuli were displayed on a Sony 20SE color monitor or Phillips 202P4. Stimuli were presented for one second to control light adaptation and were ramped on and off with a Gaussian envelope. The colors were shown in a uniform gray background, and had fixed contrast throughout the experiment. The test field returned to gray for 3 seconds between each stimulus presentation. Luminance contrast of the stimuli was defined by Michelson contrast. The chromaticity of the stimuli was defined according to a scaled version of the MBDKL color space. Results showed that focal color choices for different cultures were in a comparable range. Different culture members show slightly different choices for blue and yellow-green. However the rest of tested colors were set more or less similarly. When we compare variations in both groups, Turkish group showed more individual differences than American group but the pattern of variations between two groups were similar. These results show that even if there are individual variations within group, the overall pattern are very similar for colors’ choices across different groups, thus supporting universalist explanation.

“Psychological Time and Decisions: An Overarching Approach”, by Assist. Prof. Dr. Fuat Balcı, Koç University.
On May 2, at 16:00, in Law Building Room B-332

Interval timing refers to the ability to perceive, remember, and organize responses around durations ranging from seconds to minutes. This fundamental ability is observed in many species (e.g., fish, pigeons, mice, rats, humans) with virtually the same statistical properties. In this talk, I will briefly introduce interval timing along with its psychophysics. Then, the relation of interval timing to decision-making will be explored at the level of the underlying processing dynamics and with respect to optimality (reward maximization). Different model-based approaches to time perception will be discussed and evaluated in terms of their neural plausibility. To this end, I will specifically introduce our drift-diffusion model of interval timing and extend the scope of its application to temporal decision-making. I will demonstrate that the processing dynamics that underlie interval timing and account for its psychophysical properties within the framework of the drift-diffusion model can also account for the accuracy and latency (i.e., response times) of decisions about time intervals. Finally, the importance of interval timing for reward maximization in temporal and non-temporal decision-making will be discussed with an emphasis on the role of temporal noise characteristics in determining optimal decision strategies.

“Belirsizlik Altında Karar Verme, Ellsberg Paradoksu ve Rasyonellik", Dr. Hasan Bahçekapılı, Doğuş Üniversitesi.
25 Nisan, Saat: 16:00, in Law Building Room B-332.

İnsanların tercih yaparken belirsizlikten kaçınma eğiliminde olmaları bazı özel durumlarda tutarsız ve dolayısıyla rasyonel olmayan kararlar vermelerine yol açmaktadır. Bu durumun ekonomi alanında en çok tartışılmış örneklerinden biri Ellsberg paradoksudur. Paradoks bir yandan normatif bir teori olan beklenen fayda teorisi için yarattığı zorluklar bakımından tartışılırken bir yandan da insanların rasyonellikten sistematik sapma gösterdiklerinin kanıtı olup olmaması açısından tartışılmaktadır. Bu konuşmada Ellsberg paradoksu formel açıdan tanıtıldıktan sonra literatürde var olan az sayıdaki davranış deneyinden hareketle paradoksun hangi durumlarda ortaya çıktığı ve “belirsizlikten kaçınma” hipotezinin bulguları açıklamada ne derece başarılı olduğu tartışılacaktır. Ek olarak normatif modellerin ve rasyonel analizin sadece ekonomistleri değil, asıl amacı davranışı betimlemek ve açıklamak olan bilişsel bilimcileri de ilgilendirmesi gerektiği savunulacaktır.

“Acquired language disorders in a bilingual Turkish-English speaker”, by İlhan Raman, Middlesex University.
On April 18, at 16:00, in Law Building Room B-332

One question that has attracted the attention of researchers for over a century is the relationship between brain lesions and behaviour. Cognitive neuropsychology of language examines the extent to which brain lesions affect language processing. In this respect, although an abundance of research on monolingual language disorders exist, little is known about the acquired language disorders in bilinguals. The aim of this talk is to describe acquired language difficulties in a Turkish-English bilingual case study, BRB, and to evaluate the role of each language on the manifestation of the disorders within the cognitive architecture.

“Image and Audio Techniques in Cognitive Science: An Introductory Approach”, by Assist. Prof. Dr. Dionysis Goularas, Yeditepe University.
On April 11, at 16.00, in Law Building Room B-332

In Cognitive Science, Image and Audio signals are widely used as input data for cognitive algorithms including visual odometry, navigation, speech recognition, recognition of objects, etc. One of the challenges of Cognitive Science is to overcome the difficulties created by the multi-discipline nature of this domain, where scientists from different backgrounds have to understand each other and collaborate with success. Focusing to fill this gap, in this seminar, basic principles of Image and Audio processing techniques will be presented, which are related with the techniques that Cognitive algorithms use: Image files, Color, Fourier Transform, Wavelets in Image Processing and Audio files, Spectrogram, Mel Frequencies and Hidden Markov Models in Audio Processing will be covered with an intuitive and understandable way, trying to avoid complete mathematical explanations.

“A New Rubber Hand Paradigm Induced with Movements of the Whole Hand”, by Alper Açık, Özyeğin University.
On April 4, at 16:00, in Law Building Room B-332

In the rubber hand illusion (Botvinick & Cohen, 1998), after simultaneous and anatomically congruent touches to a hidden real hand a visible rubber hand participants report feeling as if they own the rubber hand. After the appearance of the illusion, when they use their unstimulated hand to point to the stimulated hand, their response is shifted in the direction of the rubber hand, a phenomenon labeled proprioceptive drift. In this study we tried to induce the illusion both with tactile stimulations while the hand was passive and horizontal movements of the real hand. The feeling of agency was manipulated by letting the hand be moved either by the participant or the experimenter. We have used an apparatus with three boxes for the two real hands and the rubber hand. The boxes for to-be-stimulated left hand and the rubber hand were horizontally movable and the right-hand box was static. There were three stimulation conditions. Tactile stimulation, participant moving her hand (active movement), and the experimenter moving the hand of the participant (passive movement). In each condition, the stimulation of the real and rubber hands was either synchronous or asynchronous. After each stimulation the participant was asked to point to the left hand with the right hand or the other way around. The perceptual experience was probed with a questionnaire. The questionnaire findings revealed that even though in each stimulation condition synchronous touches led to the feelings of ownership of the rubber hand, the illusion was stronger in the tactile condition. As expected, feelings of agency were reported only in the active movement condition. Only in the synchronous condition, and only if the right hand pointed to the left –stimulated– hand there was a 2.5 to 5 cm proprioceptive drift. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to induce the illusion with movements of the whole hand. Nevertheless, since the tactile and skin-movement related signals during the movement of the hand are not congruent with the appearance of the rubber hand, the illusion is not as strong as in the tactile condition. Our findings are in line with the empirically well supported idea that the object recognition system, and not the action system, is prone to visual illusions. To conclude, even though the rubber hand illusion is changing the perception of the location of a limb, the movements of the limb are still computed considering its real location.

“Initiation vs. Delimitation: An Event Structure Perspective”, by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Balkız Öztürk Başaran, Boğaziçi University.
On March 28, at 16:00, in Law Building Room B-332

Initiation and culmination of events have played a crucial role in the classification of eventualities and in their mapping onto syntax. Ritter and Rosen (2000) introduce a typology based on initiation (I) and delimitation (D) of events. I-languages base event status to the initial bound of the event, while D-languages focus on the terminal bound. Based on this split, the two types of languages exhibit different morpho-syntactic properties. In this study, we will compare and contrast Laz – an endangered Caucasian language spoken in North-Eastern Turkey with Turkish and English. We will show that while Turkish and English come across as D-languages, which involve different morpho-syntactic tools to highlight delimitation of events, Laz, as a very conservative I-language, always structurally presents the initiation of events in its syntax. Thus, while languages like Turkish and English can only focus on the delimitation of events without presenting initiation, Laz always represents initiation in syntax as it conceptualizes all eventualities as having an initial bound.

“Consciousness and Misrepresentation”, by Assit. Prof. Dr. Sinem Elkatip Hatipoğlu- Şehir University
On March 21, at 16.00, in Law Building Room 332.

No one denies that we humans differ significantly from what one might call our cognitive relatives, i.e. complex machines such as robots or other forms of living beings. However what marks the difference is difficult to pin down. Consciousness has been taken to be one of the best candidates to account for this difference but an account of consciousness is just as difficult to give. In this talk I focus on one particular theory of consciousness, viz. the higher-order theory of consciousness and a troubling aspect of this theory. Higher-order theories assert that a mental state is conscious when there is a higher-order representation of that mental state. For instance the perception of a blue chair is conscious when there is a higher-order representation of the perception. But since representations are not infallible, higher-order theorists embrace the possibility of having a conscious perception of a blue chair where there is a perception of a red chair or even where there is no perception. The former is usually called a misrepresentation and the latter radical misrepresentation. Even though higher-order theories have many virtues, I suggest that the possibility of a radical misrepresentation undermines some of those virtues. As such either the possibility of a radical misrepresentation needs to be denied or the phenomenon of a radical misrepresentation needs to be understood in a different way.

“Ups and Downs of Memory Retrieval Across the Life Span”, by Prof. Dr. Ali İ. Tekcan, Boğaziçi University.
On March 14, at 16.00, in Law Building Room B-332

The pattern of retrieval for autobiographical memories across the life span deviates from a typical forgetting function. When adults over the age of 40 remember personal experiences, more-than-expected number of memories come from one’s youth. This phenomenon, typically referred to as the bump, is a very robust and general phenomenon, emerging for various types of information such as semantic knowledge. Although the empirical phenomenon is very reliable, it has not been easy to establish a theoretical account for the variety of the findings regarding the bump.The presentation will focus on several data sets addressing the characteristics of the bump for collective and flashbulb memories with an attempt to comparatively test alternative theoretical accounts of the bump.

“Impact of interaction and feedback on children’s development of referential communication skills”, by Prof. Dr. Aylin C. Küntay, Koç University & Utrecht University.
On March 7, at 16:00, in Law Building Room B-332

How do children develop communicative effectiveness while referring to things and people in different contexts? I will briefly describe why preschool-age children are thought to have inadequate referential communication skills in their language productions. Then, I will talk about children’s way of referring to objects via demonstrative pronouns and relative clauses in semi-experimental setups. I will show how interactive goals and adult feedback impact (monolingual) children’s production of linguistic referential devices.

“Computer Analysis of Human Behavior”, by Assist. Prof. Dr. Albert Ali Salah, Boğaziçi University.
On February 28, at 16:00, in Law Building Room B-332

Human behavior is complex, but not random. With advances in pattern recognition and multimedia computing, it became possible to analyze human behavior at different time-scales and at different levels of interpretation. This ability opens up enormous possibilities for multimedia and multimodal interaction, with a potential of endowing the computers with a capacity to attribute meaning to users' attitudes, preferences, personality, social relationships, etc., as well as to understand what people are doing, the activities they have been engaged in, their routines and lifestyles. Re-defining the relationship between the computer and the interacting human, moving the computer from a passive observer role to a socially active participant role and enabling it to drive different kinds of interaction has implications across multiple domains. This talk will delineate human behavior understanding as a research field, and summarize the research of our group in this field. In particular, applications in automatic analysis of facial dynamics and human-robot interaction will be discussed.

“Recursion in Planning and Language”, by Prof. Dr. Cem Bozşahin, Middle-East Technical University.
On February 21, at 16:00, in Law Building Room B-332

The kind of recursive processes we see in language, and the manner in which we do plans, seem disparate from an external point of view. When we look into their internal mechanisms at some level of abstraction, we see that, at the automaton level, they seem to share lots of computational properties. Then the question arises: which might have been there first in the brain, evolutionarily speaking?